Urinary Tract Infections

—Specialisation

Urology is one specialized medical science which deals with the urinary tract that relates to ureters, urethra, bladder and kidneys, in both men and women. The specialized science also deals with the testes, prostates, scrotum, penis, etc. of the male.

Since urology is associated or related with the other parts of the body, like ureters, bladder, urethra and kidney, there is a wide range of urology related clinical problems. So, urology is specialized with seven kinds.

Urology is specialized with seven kinds…

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Urologic Oncology related to the urologic cancers treatment

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Male infertility

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Female urology

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Pediatric urology related to the childrens urology treatment

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Calculi related to the urinary tract stones treatment

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Renal transplant related to the kidneys

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Neurourology that deals with control of the nervous system related to the genitourinary organs

Urinary Tract

Urinary tract is the place, where the urine is passed out from the body. It is the urinary system, which is also known as renal system. It consists of ureters, bladder, urethra and kidneys. The physiological function of the urinary tract is to eliminate the waste fluids from the body and also regulate the volume and pressure of the blood. It also regulates pH of the blood and control the metabolites and electrolytes levels.

Urinary Tract Infection or UTI is a very common in many of the countries with more than 8.1 million doctor visits, every year. Close to 12 percent of men and close to 40 percent of women usually experience the symptoms for at least one UTI problem in their entire lifetime. Young women, who experience the symptoms of one UTI usually have more chances to have another UTI problem. Men are less likely get affected by the problems related to the UTI.

Though it is not very usual in men, however, if started once, there will be more chances to get one more, as the bacteria related to the problems tends to hide within the prostate. Children also do get the problem of UTI, however, it is less common.

Symptoms

When someone is affected with the UTI, the following symptoms are seen.

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Pain in the tummy or lower abdomen

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Frequent urination

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Burning sensation or pain, while urinating

When the patient suffers from the following, along with the UTI, he or she has to consult the doctor immediately.

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Getting the symptoms worser

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Patient is pregnant

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Develop high temperature

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Patient has diabetes

Treatments Available

UTIs can be uncomfortable and painful. However, they pass out in a few days. Usually, UTI should get better themselves by itself within 4 to 5 days. otherwise, treatment is needed. Complications are less likely with the UTI, however, if the complications occurred, they can be serious and may lead to blood poisoning or kidney failure. Complications are usually possible for the patients, who are affected with pre-existing health problems, like weak immune systems, diabetes.

The treatments available are the following.

Self help

The pain that is resulted from the UTI can be encountered by using the painkillers, like paracetamol. However, if the patient suffers from the upper UTI, it is not advised to use NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs), like ibuprofen. Otherwise, the risks and complications associated with the kidneys will be increased.

Drink more and more fluids to relieve from the fever symptoms and prevent dehydration.

Treatment in the Hospital

It is important to visit the hospital and take the medication in the hospital in the following cases, when the patient is,

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Pregnant

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Suffer from severe vomiting

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Over 60 years of age

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Dehydrated

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Experience severe pain

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Have diabetes

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Have HIV

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Have Cancer

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Going through the radiotherapy or chemotherapy

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Medical history associated with the kidney disease

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Pass the urine in smaller amounts

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Cannot pass the urine

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Frequent occurrence of upper UTIs

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Have sickle cell anaemia

Treatment with upper UTI

When the upper UTI has been developed, then the hydration is given in the hospital by injecting the fluids. Antibiotics are also given through the drips.

Along with the injection of the fluids and antibiotics, regular tests for urine and blood are done, to check the progress of the treatment.

The treatment may continue from three days to seven days and the patient can be discharged from the hospital.